An acidic blood pH over a prolonged period of time can be problematic for health, as it is generally associated with being more prone to illness. Harmful amounts of acids and toxins can accumulate in the body for a number of reasons, including everything from drinking, smoking and lack of exercise, to a high intake of processed and concentrated foods packed with harmful chemicals and other 'nasties'. In other words, a poor diet. Over time, the result of an overly acidic body can be: structural damage (including cell deterioration and inflammation) a build up of impurities and a high toxic load (resulting in a strain on the detox organs and systems of the body) skin problems (including body odour, excessive sweating and acne) yeast and fungal overgrowth (in natural health world, fungi and yeasts are often referred to as "acid and toxin eaters").

*Alkaline diet  (also known as the alkaline ash diet, alkaline acid diet, acid ash diet, and acid alkaline diet) describes a group of loosely related diets based on the misconception that different types of food can have an effect on the pH balance of the body. It originated from the   acid ash hypothesis, which primarily related to   osteoporosis  research. Proponents of the diet believe that certain foods can affect the   acidity        (pH) of the body and that the change in pH can therefore be used to treat or prevent disease. Credible   laboratories  have done extensive research on this subject and have proven the theory to be false, not supporting the claimed mechanism of this diet. Due to conclusive evidence, it is not recommended by   dietitians  or other   health professionals

*These diets have been promoted by   alternative medicine   practitioners, who propose that such diets treat or prevent   cancer,   heart disease, low energy levels, and other illnesses. Human blood is maintained between pH 7.35 and 7.45 by   acid–base homeostasis  mechanisms. Levels above 7.45 are referred to as   alkalosis  and levels below 7.35 as   acidosis. Both are potentially serious. The idea that these diets can materially affect blood pH for the purpose of treating a range of diseases is not supported by scientific research and makes incorrect assumptions about how alkaline diets function that are contrary to human   physiology.

*While diets avoiding   meat,   poultry,   cheese           and   grains  can be used in order to make the urine more alkaline (higher pH), difficulties in effectively predicting the effects of these diets have led to   medications, rather than diet modification, as the preferred method of changing urine pH. The "acid-ash" hypothesis was once considered a risk factor for  osteoporosis, though the current weight of scientific evidence does not support this hypothesis. *Wikipedia.


Antioxidants are nutrients found in natural whole foods, which can prevent or slow the oxidative damage to the body as a result of (for example) ill-health, poor diet, stress, UV rays, pollution or exercise. When our cells use oxygen, they naturally produce unstable molecules called free radicals. These harmful molecules can cause damage in the body, resulting in ageing and potentially illness. Antioxidants act as "free radical scavengers" and can therefore help to prevent and even repair damage done by free radicals. 

*Antioxidants  are   compounds  that inhibit   oxidation.   Oxidation  is a   chemical reaction  that can produce   free radicals, thereby leading to   chain reactions      that may damage the   cells  of organisms. Antioxidants such as   thiols      or   ascorbic acid  (vitamin C) terminate these chain reactions. To balance the   oxidative stress, plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping antioxidants, such as   glutathione  and   enzymes  (e.g.,   catalase     and   superoxide dismutase), produced internally, or the   dietary     antioxidants   vitamin C     and   vitamin E.

*The term "antioxidant" is mostly used for two entirely different groups of substances:   industrial chemicals       that are added to products to prevent oxidation, and naturally occurring compounds that are present in foods and   tissue. The former, industrial antioxidants, have diverse uses: acting as   preservatives  in food and cosmetics, and being   oxidation-inhibitors in fuels.

*Antioxidant   dietary supplements  have not been shown to improve health in humans, or to be effective at preventing disease.  Supplements of   beta-carotene,   vitamin A, and vitamin E have no positive effect on   mortality rate  or   cancer      risk.  Additionally, supplementation with   selenium  or vitamin E does not reduce the risk of  cardiovascular disease. *Wikipedia


The structural system of the body, comprising bones, membranes, connective tissues, muscles and skin, provides an essential framework which offers form, while simultaneously enabling mobility and providing protection. Although bones generally stop growing in length during mid-teens for girls and at around the age of 20 for boys, they never really stop the growing process. This is because they are constantly rebuilding themselves. Maintaining healthy bones and joints is therefore vitally important for anyone wishing to lead a full and active life, particularly in later years.

*The   human skeletal system   is a complex organ in constant equilibrium with the rest of the body. In addition to support and structure of the body,   bone   is the major reservoir for many minerals and compounds essential for maintaining a healthy     pH   balance. The deterioration of the body with age renders the elderly particularly susceptible to and affected by poor bone health. Illnesses like   osteoporosis, characterized by weakening of the bone's structural matrix, increases the risk of    hip-fractures   and other life-changing secondary symptoms. In 2010, over 258,000 people aged 65 and older were admitted to the hospital for hip fractures. Incidence of hip fractures is expected to rise by 12% in America, with a projected 289,000 admissions in the year 2030. Other sources estimate up to 1.5 million Americans will have an osteoporotic-related fracture each year. The cost of treating these people is also enormous, in 1991   Medicare   spent an estimated $2.9 billion for treatment and out-patient care of hip fractures, this number can only be expected to rise.

*A    joint   or    articulation   (or articular surface) is the connection made between   bones   in the body which link the    skeletal system   into a functional whole. They are constructed to allow for different degrees and types of movement. Some joints, such as the    knee,   elbow      and   shoulder, are self-lubricating, almost frictionless, and are able to withstand compression and maintain heavy loads while still executing smooth and precise movements.   Other joints such as   sutures   between the bones of the   skull   permit very little movement (only during birth) in order to protect the brain and the   sense organs.   The connection between a tooth and the   jawbone       is also called a joint, and is described as a fibrous joint known as a  gomphosis. Joints are classified both structurally and functionally. *Wikipedia.


Nutritional medicine places much emphasis on the state of the colon in terms of overall health and well-being. Its main role in digestion is to extract water from the waste material travelling through it - a fully-functioning, healthy colon will absorb water and will have efficient peristalsis throughout its length, performing a bowel movement two or three times per day (depending on the number of meals eaten). Ideally, it should perform the vital function of eliminating harmful wastes and toxins promptly. If stored too long in the system, such wastes and toxins can give rise to diverse problems throughout the body. Due to a wide range of factors - particularly poor diet - there is is now a high prevalence of digestive disorders. As such, incomplete digestion of foods, with fermentation and putrefaction, are relatively common. It is essential to remove deposits and debris from the colon at regular intervals, even for those with good digestion. However, this becomes even more important where there is a back-up in the digestive system and, in particular, where sticky and even hardened deposits are in the 'pockets' along the walls of the bowel.

*Colon cleansing, also known as colon therapy, or colon hydrotherapy, or a colonic, or colonic irrigation encompasses a number of   alternative medical therapies        claimed  to remove unspecified   toxins  from the   colon      and intestinal tract by removing supposed accumulations of   feces. Colon cleansing in this context should not be confused with an   enema  which introduces fluid into the colon, often under mainstream medical supervision, for a limited number of purposes including severe constipation  and medical imaging.

*Some forms of colon hydrotherapy use tubes to inject   water, sometimes mixed with herbs or with other liquids, into the colon via the rectum using special equipment. Oral cleaning regimes use   dietary fiber, herbs,   dietary supplements, or   laxatives. People who practice colon cleansing believe in "auto-intoxication", that accumulations of putrefied feces line the walls of the   large intestine  and that these accumulations harbor   parasites  or pathogenic   gut flora, causing   nonspecific symptoms  and general ill-health.

*This "auto-intoxication" hypothesis is based on medical beliefs of the   Ancient Egyptians  and   Greeks  and was discredited in the early 20th century.  Nonetheless, during the 2000s Internet marketing and  infomercials of oral supplements supposedly for colon cleansing increased. *Wikipedia.


Slimmers tend to have a high failure rate. This is usually because they either take the wrong approach (opting for a "quick fix"), are too ambitious too early on (i.e. cutting out everything they enjoy at once) or because they don't understand the particular weight loss program, which can often be overly complex. But losing weight needn't be complicated. Slimmers need to forget about "diets" which starve them of nutrients and instead focus on a holistic weight loss regime that covers all aspects of their life, including everything from a well-balanced diet and a regular exercise regime, to healthy digestion, a strong immune system and good hydration - which is where you come in! A natural approach to weight loss, along with a commitment to lifestyle change, should have you shedding pounds in no time and keeping off for the long-term. Plus, with the help of our specialist diet foods, you won't be losing weight at the expense of your general health and well-being; on the contrary, you will be heading towards optimum nutrition!


Natural health practitioners tend to place a lot of emphasis on the digestive tract. This is understandable when you think that it is the system in the body which controls nutrient intake, as well as the elimination of toxins which would be harmful to us if allowed to remain. The health of our liver, lymphatic system and immune system are also greatly affected by the state of the digestive system. If the digestive system is not working efficiently, it can lead to a number of health conditions, including leaky gut syndrome, malabsorption of nutrients, food sensitivities, fermentation, putrefaction, a high toxic load, increased bacterial activity, overgrowth of pathogens, dysbiosis and more. 

*The  human digestive system  consists of the   gastrointestinal tract  plus the accessory organs of digestion (the   tongue,   salivary glands,   pancreas,   liver, and   gallbladder).   Digestion  involves the breakdown of food into smaller and smaller components, until they can be absorbed and assimilated into the body. The process of digestion has three stages. The first stage is the   cephalic phase  of digestion which begins with gastric secretions in response to the sight and smell of food. This stage includes the mechanical breakdown of food by   chewing, and the chemical breakdown by digestive enzymes, that takes place in the   mouth.

*Saliva  contains   digestive enzymes  called   amylase, and   lingual lipase, secreted by the   salivary glands  and   serous glands  on the tongue. The enzymes start to break down the food in the mouth. Chewing, in which the food is mixed with saliva, begins the mechanical process of digestion. This produces a   bolus      which can be swallowed down the   esophagus      to enter the   stomach. In the stomach the   gastric phase of digestion  takes place. The food is further broken down by mixing with   gastric acid  until it passes into the   duodenum, in the third   intestinal phase of digestion, where it is mixed with a number of   enzymes     produced by the   pancreas. Digestion is helped by the chewing of food carried out by the   muscles of mastication, the tongue, and the   teeth, and also by the   contractions     of   peristalsis, and   segmentation.   Gastric acid, and the production of   mucus  in the stomach, are essential for the continuation of digestion.

*Peristalsis is the rhythmic contraction of   muscles  that begins in the esophagus and continues along the wall of the stomach and the rest of the   gastrointestinal tract. This initially results in the production of   chyme     which when fully broken down in the   small intestine  is absorbed as   chyle      into the   lymphatic system. Most of the digestion of food takes place in the small intestine. Water and some   minerals     are reabsorbed back into the blood in the colon of the   large intestine. The waste products of digestion (feces) are   defecated  from the   anus  via the  rectum. *Wikipedia.


Food in this day and age is so processed and interfered with, that it is now difficult to ensure optimum nutrient intake through diet alone. While organic food is a far healthier option, and more likely to provide more of what the body needs to stay fuelled and healthy, it still suffers from many of the same issues (such as poor soil quality, long-distance transportation and therefore depletion of nutrients). As a result, many people in the UK, across Europe and worldwide are now turning to natural, nutrient-dense health products to supplement their diet, as they become increasingly health-conscious. However, there is no point in taking supplements that contain substances that are not recognised by the body, or are actually harmful to the body. Unfortunately, many manufacturers of vitamins, minerals and other dietary supplements use artificial additives, preservatives, colourings, flavourings, excipients, fillers, binders, disintegrants, dilutents and synthetic man-made nutrients in their products - particularly when they are in tablet form. In fact, very often, the active ingredients comprise as little as 15% of the entire tablet! The cheaper the products, the more of these undesirable ingredients are likely to be contained within them. In contrast, so-called "food form" or "food state" supplements are those that have been sympathetically processed to remain as close as possible to the original natural whole food ingredients that make them up. This means that the nutrients are more bio-available and the body is more readily able to absorb and use them.


The heart is an incredible vital organ and its well-being is one of our biggest health assets. It pumps the equivalent of 2,000 gallons of blood through its chambers each day, which carries nutrients and oxygen to every cell in the body this way. Simultaneously, blood picks up carbon dioxide and other waste materials produced by the cells and carries them away for elimination. It is essential that proper care is taken of the circulatory system, so that it does not become clogged or restricted in its natural flow. Being overweight, lack of exercise, poor diet and smoking are just some of many potential factors, which can place this system (and the heart more particularly) under strain. According to the British Heart Foundation, collectively heart and circulatory diseases cause more than a quarter of all deaths in the UK, accounting for more than 161,000 deaths each year.

*The  heart  is a   muscular   organ     in most animals, which pumps   blood  through the   blood vessels  of the   circulatory system. The pumped blood carries   oxygen       and   nutrients  to the body, while carrying   metabolic waste      such as   carbon dioxide  to the   lungs.  In   humans, the heart is approximately the size of a closed   fist  and is located between the lungs, in the   middle compartment  of the   chest.

*In humans, other mammals, and birds, the heart is divided into four chambers: upper left and right   atria  and lower left and right   ventricles. Commonly the right atrium and ventricle are referred together as the right heart    and their left counterparts as the   left heart.  Fish, in contrast, have two chambers, an atrium and a ventricle, while reptiles have three chambers. In a healthy heart blood flows one way through the heart due to   heart valves, which prevent   backflow.  The heart is enclosed in a protective sac, the   pericardium, which also contains a small amount of   fluid. The wall of the heart is made up of three layers:   epicardium,   myocardium, and   endocardium.

*The heart pumps blood with a rhythm determined by a group of pacemaking cells in the   sinoatrial node. These generate a current that causes contraction of the heart, traveling through the   atrioventricular node  and along the   conduction system of the heart. The heart receives blood low in oxygen from the   systemic circulation, which enters the right atrium from the   superior  and   inferior venae cavae  and passes to the right ventricle. From here it is pumped into the   pulmonary circulation, through the   lungs  where it receives oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide. Oxygenated blood then returns to the left atrium, passes through the left ventricle and is pumped out through the   aorta      to the systemic circulation−where the oxygen is used and   metabolized  to carbon dioxide.  The heart beats at a resting   rate  close to 72 beats per minute.   Exercise  temporarily increases the rate, but lowers   resting heart rate         in the long term, and is good for heart health.

*Cardiovascular diseases  (CVD) are the most common cause of death globally as of 2008, accounting for 30% of deaths. Of these more than three quarters are a result of   coronary artery disease     and   stroke. Risk factors include:   smoking, being   overweight, little exercise,   high cholesterol,   high blood pressure      and poorly controlled   diabetes, among others.  Cardiovascular diseases frequently do not have symptoms or may cause   chest pain  or    shortness of breath. Diagnosis of heart disease is often done by the taking of a   medical history,   listening  to the   heart-sounds  with a   stethoscope,   ECG, and   ultrasound. Specialists who focus on diseases of the heart are called  cardiologists, although many specialties of medicine may be involved in treatment. *Wikipedia


So-called "health foods" are no longer the preserve of health fanatics - ensuring a reliable daily supply of vitamins, minerals and other vital nutrients is a concern (or at least should be) for every person living in the modern age. As long ago as 1992, the 'Earth Summit Report' revealed a potential loss of 72% of the mineral content in the soils of Europe in the last 100 years alone, as a result of modern-day intensive farming practices. These depleted soils then yield crops that are tasteless and have poor nutritional content. And this doesn't take into account the wide scale interference with our food chain in terms of synthetic chemical inputs after harvesting! The result - unfortunately, we can no longer rely on diet alone to fulfill our bodies' nutritional requirements. This is even the case where we believe we are eating a healthy, well-balanced diet.


The immune system makes up the body's primary defence against harmful pathogens, infectious bacteria and other 'invaders'. Through a series of steps, together referred to as "the immune response", the immune system attacks organisms and substances that infiltrate body systems and cause disease. The immune system comprises a network of cells, tissues and organs located throughout the body. For instance, arguably the most important part of the immune system is in the gut, which is home to Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (found in the intestines). GALT is considered to be the largest collection of immune cells in the body - 70% of all antibody producing cells are located here! In this way, a number of systems work together as part of the immune system to protect the body, including the digestive system, the lymphatic system, the urinary system and the liver. If one system is under strain (for example, as a result of a high toxic load, inflammation, acidity etc), this will place additional stress on other systems. Immune-boosting should therefore always be viewed as a holistic exercise, which involves all aspects of health - including everything from diet and exercise, to potential food allergies, gut integrity and digestive disorders.  

*The  immune system  is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and    processes     within an   organism  that protects against   disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as   pathogens, from   viruses  to   parasitic worms, and   distinguish   them from the organism's own healthy   tissue. In many species, there are two major subsystems of the immune system: the   innate immune system  and the   adaptive immune system. Both subsystems use   humoral immunity  and   cell-mediated immunity  to perform their functions. In humans, the   blood–brain barrier,   blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier     and similar fluid–brain barriers separate the peripheral immune system from the    neuroimmune system, which protects the   brain.

*Pathogens can rapidly   evolve      and adapt, and thereby avoid detection and neutralization by the immune system; however, multiple defense mechanisms have also evolved to recognize and neutralize pathogens. Even simple   unicellular     organisms such as   bacteria     possess a rudimentary immune system in the form of   enzymes  that protect against   bacteriophage     infections. Other basic immune mechanisms evolved in ancient   eukaryotes     and remain in their modern descendants, such as plants and invertebrates. These mechanisms include   phagocytosis,   antimicrobial peptides   called   defensins     and the   complement system.   Jawed vertebrates, including humans, have even more sophisticated defense mechanisms, including the ability to adapt over time to recognize specific pathogens more efficiently. Adaptive (or acquired) immunity creates   immunological memory  after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of   vaccination.

*Disorders of the immune system can result in   autoimmune diseases,   inflammatory diseases  and   cancer.   Immunodeficiency  occurs when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections. In humans, immunodeficiency can either be the result of a   genetic disease      such as   severe combined immunodeficiency, acquired conditions such as   HIV/AIDS, or the use of immunosuppressive medication. In contrast,   autoimmunity  results from a hyperactive immune system attacking normal tissues as if they were foreign organisms. Common autoimmune diseases include   Hashimoto's thyroiditis,   rheumatoid arthritis,   diabetes mellitus type 1  and   systemic lupus erythematosus.  Immunology covers the study of all aspects of the immune system. *Wikipedia.


In this modern age of technology, genetic modification, environmental pollution, toxic overload and overuse of medication, nutrition has arguably become more important than ever. However, for a number of reasons (ironically also linked to modern living), achieving optimal nutrition through diet alone has become infinitely more difficult. For example, modern farming techniques, widescale food processing, long-distance transportation of foods, extended shelf-lives and the increased use of harmful synthetic chemicals - not to mention the time and financial constraints placed on most people. As a result, the nutrient content of the average diet has declined. A growing number of people are therefore seeking new ways to ensure that their families are getting the broad spectrum of nutrients that they need on a daily basis to stay healthy. This is particularly pertinent where an individual follows a restricted diet, which is very common nowadays. For example, vegan, vegetarian, organic, athlete, coeliac, diabetic, dairy-free or gluten-free - in these cases, the question is often how to avoid deficiencies. The best way to achieve most health goals is through careful meal planning. It is still true to say that nothing can replace a well-balanced diet; eating a variety of natural whole foods goes a long way towards helping to achieve optimum nutrition. However, it is now not always possible to meet the body’s complete nutritional requirements through diet alone. High-quality meal shakes can provide a quick and easy means of topping up on nutrients on a daily basis. They are particularly handy for people short on time, those who tend to skip meals (such as breakfast) or dislike the taste of “green” foods. Used correctly, in conjunction with a well-balanced diet, meal shakes can support everything from immunity and weight management, to recovery, an active lifestyle, high energy levels, general health and well-being.

*A health shake is a blended drink intended to be healthful for one to consume and some are commercially marketed for that purpose. They are often consumed by sportspeople as part of a fitness diet or as a meal replacement (e.g. an instant breakfast). Health shakes may include a wide range of ingredients, including powdered nutrients, superfoodsbee pollenpeanut buttercoconut oil, bean powder, clover sprouts, etc.

*Bodybuilders sometimes drink a protein shake to help build and recover muscles. While some health shakes have more calories than a plate of pancakes or a cheese omelet,[1] these extra calories are accompanied by nutrients and both may be required by athletes in training. Smoothies—particularly green smoothies—are arguably a type of health shake, except stereotypical health shakes often contain some processed ingredients rather than just raw fruit and vegetables. *Wikipedia.


Working out is not enough when it comes to maximising the results of training efforts; whether the individual is looking to increase muscle mass, tone up, increase pump, improve performance or build stamina, what they put into their body is just as important as their training programme. Similarly, everything from digestive health and toxic load, to immunity and skeletal health can affect performance. It is therefore always advisable to look at the body as a whole, when seeking to improve sporting performance and achieve other health and fitness goals. The key is to give the body the fuel that it needs for best results!

*Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals. Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion. They are primarily responsible for maintaining and changing posturelocomotion, as well as movement of internal organs, such as the contraction of the heart and the movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis.

*Muscle tissues are derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells in a process known as myogenesis. There are three types of muscle, skeletal or striated, cardiac, and smooth. Muscle action can be classified as being either voluntary or involuntary. Cardiac and smooth muscles contract without conscious thought and are termed involuntary, whereas the skeletal muscles contract upon command. Skeletal muscles in turn can be divided into fast and slow twitch fibers.

*Muscles are predominantly powered by the oxidation of fats and carbohydrates, but anaerobic chemical reactions are also used, particularly by fast twitch fibers. These chemical reactions produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules that are used to power the movement of the myosin heads.

*The term muscle is derived from the Latin musculus meaning "little mouse" perhaps because of the shape of certain muscles or because contracting muscles look like mice moving under the skin. *Wikipedia.


Essential fatty acids, more commonly referred to as Omega 3 and Omega 6 oils, are healthy fats that the body cannot synthesize itself and therefore must be obtained through high quality dietary sources on a daily basis. These and other beneficial oils (such as Omega 9), support a wide range of processes in the body, including the cardiovascular, reproductive, immune and nervous systems. They are also involved in cognitive functions, metabolism and hormone production. The human body needs these oils (and particularly EFAs), to assist in the manufacture and repair of cell membranes, enabling the cells to obtain optimum nutrition and expel harmful waste products. They are also essential for ensuring healthy organ activity, along with assisting the elimination of toxins. Their incredibly wide application makes them an essential nutrient for anyone wishing to achieve optimum nutrition, strong immunity, general health and well-being.

*Essential fatty acids, or   EFAs, are   fatty acids   that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot    synthesize   them.

*The term "essential fatty acid" refers to fatty acids required for biological processes but does not include the fats that only act as fuel. Essential fatty acids should not be confused with   essential oils, which are "essential" in the sense of being a concentrated   essence.

*Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for humans:   alpha-linolenic acid  (an omega-3 fatty acid) and   linoleic acid  (an omega-6 fatty acid).  Some other fatty acids are sometimes classified as "conditionally essential", meaning that they can become essential under some developmental or disease conditions; examples include   docosahexaenoic acid   (an omega-3 fatty acid) and   gamma-linolenic acid      (an omega-6 fatty acid).

*When the two EFAs were discovered in 1923, they were designated "vitamin F", but in 1929, research on rats showed that the two EFAs are better classified as   fats  rather than   vitamins.

*Unlike   omega-3 fatty acids  and   omega-6 fatty acid, omega−9 fatty acids are not classed as   essential fatty acids  (EFA). This is both because they can be created by the human body from   unsaturated fat, and are therefore not essential in the diet, and because the lack of an omega−6 double bond keeps them from participating in the reactions that form the   eicosanoids.

*Omega-9 fatty acids (ω−9 fatty acids or n−9 fatty acids) are a family of   unsaturated   fatty acids   which have in common a final carbon–carbon   double bond   in the   omega−9   position; that is, the ninth bond from the   methyl   end of the fatty acid.

*Some omega−9 fatty acids are common components of animal fat     and   vegetable oil. Two omega−9 fatty acids important in industry are:

*Under severe conditions of EFA deprivation, mammals will elongate and desaturate oleic acid to make   mead acid, (20:3, n−9). This has been documented to a lesser extent in one study following   vegetarians  and  semi-vegetarians who followed diets without substantial sources of EFA. 

* Wikipedia.


Many aspects of modern living have an adverse effect on health and, particularly, toxic load. Many people eat too many processed foods, while an increasing amount of produce is imported from long distances and then stored for long periods. What's more, the average Western diet tends to be high in sugar, salt and unhealthy fats and, as such, the level of obesity continues to rise. Even those who try to live a healthy lifestyle and eat a well-balanced diet are now often let down by the so-called "good food" that they are eating, because it lacks valuable nutrients as a result of modern-day intensive farming methods and manufacturing processes. The result - a large proportion of the food chain is contaminated with synthetic chemicals (in the form of colourings, additives, preservatives, herbicides, pesticides etc), highly toxic recycled heavy metals and other pollutants, anti-nutrients and they also tend to be nutrient-poor. With this ever-increasing exposure to toxins, many people are seeking ways to minimise their daily intake of harmful chemicals, whilst at the same time supporting their bodies' cleanse and detox processes through an alkalising diet and appropriate nutrient intake. Organic living is an ideal solution that is growing rapidly in popularity. Certified organic foods are produced without the use of toxic chemicals, pesticides and other synthetic compounds and so their natural goodness is maintained and their nutritional value is not diminished or contaminated. What's more, there is mounting evidence to suggest that organic foods typically contain a higher level of vitamins, minerals, phyto-nutrients and enzymes (and even taste better) than their intensively-farmed counterparts, grown using non-organic methods.

*Organic farming  is an agricultural system which originated early in the 20th century in reaction to rapidly changing farming practices. Certified organic agriculture accounts for 70 million hectares globally, with over half of that total in   Australia.  Organic farming continues to be developed by various organizations today. It is defined by the use of fertilizers of organic origin such as compost   manure,   green manure, and   bone meal  and places emphasis on techniques such as   crop rotation  and   companion planting.   Biological pest control, mixed cropping and the fostering of insect predators are encouraged. Organic standards are designed to allow the use of naturally occurring substances while prohibiting or strictly limiting synthetic substances.  For instance, naturally occurring pesticides such as   pyrethrin  and   rotenone      are permitted, while synthetic   fertilizers    and   pesticides  are generally prohibited. Synthetic substances that are allowed include, for example,   copper sulfate, elemental   sulfur     and   Ivermectin.   Genetically modified organisms,   nanomaterials, human   sewage sludge,   plant growth regulators,   hormones, and   antibiotic use in livestock  husbandry are prohibited. Reasons for advocation of organic farming include advantages in   sustainability, openness,   self-sufficiency,   autonomy/independence,   health,   food security, and  food safety.  *Wikipedia


Inside the human body, there are 20 times as many bacteria as living cells and they have a critical role to play in maintaining good health. Having the right kind of bacteria, in sufficient numbers, is vital for everything from healthy digestion to keeping the immune system strong (and consequently for fighting infections). In contrast, the wrong type of bacteria (i.e. the harmful or pathogenic kind) can either cause infection directly or produce toxic substances that contribute to inflammation and illness if allowed to flourish, particularly in the digestive tract. "Friendly bacteria" (comprising principally 2 families called Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria) act to keep the "bad guys" in check, by competing with them for space and food. The key to good health is therefore to maintain the delicate balance between good and bad bacteria, which can so easily be disrupted by factors including illness, antibiotics, stress, age, travel, pregnancy, poor diet, food allergies and others. The overgrowth of harmful gut flora - a common phenomena - is referred to as dysbiosis. Just some of the proven benefits of probiotics include: improved digestion enhanced vitamin production healthy cholesterol levels balanced hormones stronger immunity increased resistance to infections relief from the symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) relief from the symptoms of thrush.

*Probiotics are live   microorganisms  promoted with claims that they provide health benefits when consumed, generally by improving or restoring the   gut flora.  Probiotics are considered   generally safe to consume, but may cause   bacteria-host  interactions and unwanted   side effects  in rare cases. There is little evidence that probiotics bring the health benefits claimed for them.

*The original theory, similar to the modern concept, but not the term, is generally attributed to   Nobel laureate   Élie Metchnikoff, who postulated that   yoghurt-consuming Bulgarian peasants lived longer.

*A growing probiotics market has led to the need for stricter requirements for   scientific substantiation  of putative benefits conferred by microorganisms claimed to be probiotic.  Although numerous claimed benefits are marketed towards using consumer probiotic products, such as reducing   gastrointestinal  discomfort, improving   immune health,  relieving   constipation  or avoiding the   common cold, such claims are not supported by   scientific evidence      and are prohibited as   deceptive advertising  in the United States by the   Federal Trade Commission.  As of 2019, numerous applications for approval of   health claims  by European manufacturers of probiotic   dietary supplements  have been rejected by the  European Food Safety Authority for insufficient evidence of beneficial mechanism or efficacy. *Wikipedia.


In the journal Nature Nutrition (in the August edition of 1998) Aaron Moss stated that, "Humans have many options when it comes to fueling their bodies, but the benefits of some options are so nutritious that they might be labeled as superfoods". He was therefore one of the first recorded people to use this phrase. Since that time, the term "superfood" has been widely adopted for marketing purposes. However, when used correctly, it describes those natural whole foods with a particularly high nutrient-to-calorie ratio, and which are therefore believed to be beneficial for health. Such nutritious foods tend to be unusually rich in nutrients such as antioxidants, vitamins, minerals and powerful phyto-chemicals (such as bioflavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll), which support overall health and vitality. A number of superfood lists have been compiled in recent years, often featuring exotic specimens from the Amazon rainforest and the like and therefore receiving much media attention. However, many superfoods comprise more common foods, whose nutritional value has been long recognised. Examples of so-called superfoods include berries, nuts and seeds in general, dark green vegetables (such as kale, collard greens, Swiss chard, Brussels sprouts and broccoli), citrus fruits, Omega-rich fatty fish, highly-pigmented fruit and vegetables (such as beetroot and grapes), certain wild mushrooms, many legumes (peanuts, lentils, beans and raw cocoa) and whole grains.

*Superfood  is a    marketing  term for food assumed to confer   health benefits       resulting from an exceptional   nutrient density. The term is not commonly used by experts,   dietitians  and   nutrition scientists, many of whom dispute that particular foods have the health benefits claimed by their advocates. Even without scientific evidence of exceptional nutrient content, many new, exotic, and foreign fruits or   ancient grains  are marketed under the term – or   superfruit  or  supergrain  respectively – after being introduced or re-introduced to Western markets. *Wikipedia.


Protein is an essential macro-nutrient - one of three main chemical compounds consumed by humans in the largest quantities and which provide bulk energy (the two other macro-nutrients being fat and carbohydrates). Protein is required by the human body for a wide range of critical physiological functions. In other words, it is not just for athletes and bodybuilders - no one can function without it! This is because proteins are a component of each and every cell, tissue and organ in the body and they are constantly being broken down and replaced. Once ingested, food protein is broken down into amino acids (the building blocks of protein) and later used to replenish the body's own protein stores. There are 22 different amino acids required by the body in order to function properly and there are over 10,000 different kinds of protein in the body. Protein is involved in almost every biological process in one way or another and is used, for example, to: build and repair muscles and ligaments (whether as part of normal growth or following exercise or injury) provide the body with energy maintain organs balance blood sugar levels grow skin, hair, nails and bones produce haemoglobin in blood digest food make antibodies and support the immune system transfer messages between neurotransmitters in the brain make hormones, such as insulin and metabolism-regulators and the list goes on. Protein has an incredibly wide application in the body and can be used for anything from providing a physical structure to assisting in a biological process. This is why it is essential for all individuals to incorporate adequate levels of high quality, protein-rich foods into their daily diet. In particular, they are popular with athletes, slimmers, those on restricted diets, those recuperating from illness and the health-conscious alike. For example, the range includes products that are: suitable for vegetarians and vegans high in complete, balanced and natural plant proteins dairy-free, lactose-free, gluten-free, wheat-free, yeast-free, sugar-free and additive-free organic GMO-free rich in a broad spectrum of nutrients high in fibre naturally low in fat made from multiple superfood, superfruit and herbal ingredients good for the digestive system and body detox. As well as providing a reliable and convenient daily source of high-quality, lean and concentrated protein, our protein powders also offer support for overall health and vitality through the inclusion of multiple ingredients in a single blend. For example, superfoods, superfruits and herbs, which supply phyto-nutrients, antioxidants and other essential nutrients. These unique shakes beat standard, single-ingredient products hands down.

*Proteins  are large   biomolecules, or   macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of   amino acid   residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including   catalysing metabolic reactions,   DNA replication,   responding to stimuli, providing   structure to cells, and   organisms     and   transporting molecules     from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the   nucleotide sequence  of their   genes, and which usually results in   protein folding     into a specific   3D structure     that determines its activity.

*A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a   polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called   peptides, or sometimes   oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by   peptide bonds  and adjacent amino acid residues. The   sequence of amino acid residues in a protein is defined by the   sequence  of a gene, which is encoded in the   genetic code. In general, the genetic code specifies 20 standard amino acids; but in certain organisms the genetic code can include   selenocysteine  and—in certain   archaeapyrrolysine. Shortly after or even during synthesis, the residues in a protein are often chemically modified by   post-translational modification, which alters the physical and chemical properties, folding, stability, activity, and ultimately, the function of the proteins. Some proteins have non-peptide groups attached, which can be called   prosthetic groups  or   cofactors. Proteins can also work together to achieve a particular function, and they often associate to form stable   protein complexes.

*Once formed, proteins only exist for a certain period and are then   degraded     and recycled by the cell's machinery through the process of   protein turnover. A protein's lifespan is measured in terms of its   half-life     and covers a wide range. They can exist for minutes or years with an average lifespan of 1–2 days in mammalian cells. Abnormal or misfolded proteins are degraded more rapidly either due to being targeted for destruction or due to being unstable.

*Like other biological macromolecules such as   polysaccharides     and   nucleic acids, proteins are essential parts of organisms and participate in virtually every process within   cells. Many proteins are   enzymes     that   catalyse     biochemical reactions and are vital to   metabolism. Proteins also have structural or mechanical functions, such as   actin  and   myosin  in muscle and the proteins in the   cytoskeleton, which form a system of   scaffolding  that maintains cell shape. Other proteins are important in   cell signaling,   immune responses,   cell adhesion   and the   cell cycle. In animals, proteins are needed in the   diet  to provide the   essential amino acids  that cannot be   synthesized.   Digestion      breaks the proteins down for use in the metabolism.

*Proteins may be   purified     from other cellular components using a variety of techniques such as   ultracentrifugation,   precipitation,   electrophoresis, and   chromatography; the advent of   genetic engineering  has made possible a number of methods to facilitate purification. Methods commonly used to study protein structure and function include   immunohistochemistry,   site-directed mutagenesis,   X-ray crystallography,   nuclear magnetic resonance      and  mass spectrometry. *Wikipedia.


Vegetarianism is the practice of following a plant-based diet, with the exclusion of meat. Veganism is essentially a more extreme version of vegetarianism, which involves complete abstention from the use of all animal products (including dairy, eggs and honey, as well as the by-products of animal slaughter - like animal-derived rennet and gelatin). A vegetarian or vegan diet and lifestyle might be adopted by an individual for a number of reasons, including ethical, environmental and nutritional considerations. For example, meat and dairy products are highly acid-forming and hard to digest.  For the most part, vegetarians and vegans tend to place special emphasis on respect for sentient life. This is often linked to religious beliefs and/or the concept of animal rights. Other common motivations include health, political, cultural, aesthetic and economic.

*Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of   meat  (red meat,   poultry,   seafood     and the   flesh      of any other   animal) and may also include abstention from   by-products     of   animal slaughter.

*Vegetarianism may be adopted for various reasons. Many people   object to eating meat  out of respect for   sentient              life. Such ethical motivations have been codified   under various religious beliefs, as well as   animal rights      advocacy. Other motivations for vegetarianism are health-related, political,   environmental, cultural,   aesthetic,   economic, or personal preference. There are variations of the diet as well: an   ovo-lacto vegetarian  diet includes both eggs and dairy products, an   ovo-vegetarian  diet includes eggs but not dairy products, and a   lacto-vegetarian  diet includes dairy products but not eggs. A   vegan     diet excludes all   animal products, including eggs and dairy. Avoidance of animal products may require   dietary supplements  to prevent deficiencies such as   vitamin B12  deficiency, which leads to   pernicious anemia.  Psychologically, preference for vegetarian foods  can be impacted by one's own socio-economic status and evolutionary factors.

*Packaged and processed foods, such as cakes, cookies, candies, chocolate, yogurt, and   marshmallows, often contain unfamiliar animal ingredients, and so may be a special concern for vegetarians due to the likelihood of such   additives.  Feelings among vegetarians may vary concerning these ingredients. Some vegetarians scrutinize product labels for animal-derived ingredients  while others do not object to consuming   cheese  made with animal-derived   rennet      or are unaware of its presence.

*Semi-vegetarian  diets consist largely of vegetarian foods but may include fish or poultry, or sometimes other meats, on an infrequent basis. Those with diets containing fish or poultry may define   meat  only as   mammalian  flesh and may identify with vegetarianism.  A  pescetarian diet has been described as "fish but no other meat". *Wikipedia.


Whatever our age, we all need to take care of our bodies to get the most out of life. Women have certain additional stresses and strains to contend with, including the physical impact that accompanies pregnancy, menstruation, menopause, hormonal imbalance and other aspects particular to their physiology. What's more, women's bodies can react differently to certain factors and stimuli, such as stress and old age. All of these considerations are pertinent when caring for women's health.

*Women's health refers to the health of women, which differs from that of men in many unique ways. Women's health is an example of   population health, where health is defined by the   World Health Organization  as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". Often treated as simply women's   reproductive health, many groups argue for a broader definition pertaining to the overall health of women, better expressed as "The health of women". These differences are further exacerbated in   developing countries     where women, whose health includes both their risks and experiences, are further disadvantaged.

*Although women in   industrialised countries  have narrowed the   gender gap     in   life expectancy  and now live longer than men, in many areas of health they experience earlier and more severe disease with poorer outcomes. Gender remains an important   social determinant of health, since women's health is influenced not just by their biology but also by conditions such as   poverty, employment, and family responsibilities. Women have long been disadvantaged in many respects such as social and economic power which restricts their access to the necessities of life including   health care, and the greater the level of disadvantage, such as in developing countries, the greater adverse impact on health.

*Women's reproductive and   sexual health  has a distinct difference compared to men's health. Even in   developed countries      pregnancy   and   childbirth     are associated with substantial risks to women with   maternal mortality     accounting for more than a quarter of a million deaths per year, with large gaps between the developing and developed countries.   Comorbidity  from other non reproductive disease such as cardiovascular disease contribute to both the mortality and   morbidity     of pregnancy, including   preeclampsia.   Sexually transmitted infections  have serious consequences for women and infants, with   mother-to-child transmission     leading to outcomes such as   stillbirths     and   neonatal deaths, and   pelvic inflammatory disease  leading to   infertility. In addition infertility from many other causes,   birth control,   unplanned pregnancy,   unconsensual sexual activity     and the struggle for access to   abortion     create other burdens for women.

*While the rates of the leading causes of death,   cardiovascular disease,   cancer  and   lung disease, are similar in women and men, women have different experiences.   Lung cancer  has overtaken all other types of cancer as the leading cause of cancer death in women, followed by   breast cancer,   colorectal,   ovarian,   uterine   and   cervical     cancers. While   smoking  is the major cause of lung cancer, amongst nonsmoking women the risk of developing cancer is three times greater than amongst nonsmoking men. Despite this, breast cancer remains the commonest cancer in women in developed countries, and is one of the more important   chronic diseases     of women, while cervical cancer remains one of the commonest cancers in developing countries, associated with   human papilloma virus (HPV), an important   sexually transmitted disease.   HPV vaccine     together with   screening  offers the promise of controlling these diseases. Other important health issues for women include cardiovascular disease,   depression,   dementia,   osteoporosis  and   anemia. A major impediment to advancing women's health has been their under-representation in research studies, an   inequity     being addressed in the United States and other western nations by the establishment of   centers of excellence     in women's health research and large scale   clinical trials  such as the  Women's Health Initiative. *Wikipedia.


Slimmers tend to have a high failure rate. This is usually because they either take the wrong approach to weight loss (opting for a "quick fix"), are too ambitious too early on (i.e. cutting out everything they enjoy at once), or simply because they don't understand the particular weight loss programme, which can often be overly complex. But losing weight needn't be complicated - slimmers need to forget about "diets" which starve them of nutrients, and instead focus on a holistic weight loss regime that covers all aspects of their life, including everything from a well-balanced diet and a regular exercise programme, to healthy digestion, a strong immune system and good hydration - which is where you come in! A natural approach to weight loss, along with a commitment to reversing ingrained bad habits and behaviours, should have your customers shedding pounds in no time and keeping them off for the long-term. Plus, with the help of our specialist weight management supplements, they won't be losing weight at the expense of their general health and well-being; on the contrary, they will be heading towards optimum nutrition!

*Weight management is the phrase used to describe both the techniques and underlying physiological processes that contribute to a person's ability to attain and maintain a certain weight. Most weight management techniques encompass long-term lifestyle strategies that promote healthy eating and daily physical activity. Moreover, weight management involves developing meaningful ways to track weight over time and to identify ideal body weights for different individuals.

*Due to the rising obesity rates in many parts of the world, proper weight management strategies most often focus on achieving healthy weights through slow but steady weight loss, followed by maintenance of an   ideal body weight  over time.

*Rising   obesity  rates are a major concern around the world, especially in North America. About 60% of Americans and Canadians are either overweight or obese.  Understanding the basic science of weight management and some of the strategies for attaining and maintaining a healthy weight is very important to a person's overall health because obesity is a risk factor for many   chronic diseases, like Type 2 diabetes,   hypertension      and   cardiovascular disease.         *Wikipedia.


In a recent 'Earth Summit Report' it was revealed that a potential loss of 72% of the mineral content in the soils of Europe had occurred in the last 100 years alone, as a result of modern-day intensive farming practices. These depleted soils then yield crops that are tasteless and have poor nutritional content. Unfortunately, we can no longer rely on diet alone to fulfill our bodies' nutritional requirements. This is even the case where we believe we are eating a healthy, well-balanced diet. We all need supplements of some kind.


Mineral Depletion

Farm Land Mineral Depletion

Depletion of Soils

1992 Earth Summit statistics indicate that the mineral content of the world's farm and range soil has decreased dramatically.

In June of 1992, an Earth Summit Report was issued in RIO that documented the decline in numbers of various rare and endangered species, enlarging holes in the ozone layer, disappearance of tropical rain forests and indigenous peoples - yet the most important and immediate crisis factor the human race was glossed over and relegated to the rear pages of the voluminous report - the decline of nutritional minerals in farm and range soils by continent over the last hundred years. The results of the Earth Summit report on the decline of mineral values in our farm and range soils show that North America (United States, Canada and Mexico) is far more affected than all other continents.

Percentage of Mineral Depletion From Soil During The Past 100 Years, by Continent:

North America - 85%

South America - 76%

Asia - 76%

Africa - 74%

Europe - 72%

Australia - 55%

The settling of the Americas by Europeans introduced dry land farming that relied on rain and snow as water sources for agriculture - land was free for the taking all one had to do was clear the forests or plow the prairies. Unfortunately, without the annual flooding and supply of silt supplied in the great flood plains of the hydraulic societies and smaller river bottoms the land "played out" in five to ten years forcing the small farm family to pack up and move west to new still "virgin" or untilled soils.

The first signs that the soil was "played out" did not appear as obvious changes in the crops, but rather in the humans and livestock relying on the land as a food source. The newborn infants, calves, lambs and pigs were underweight, weak and died, the women, cows, ewes and sows became infertile, pneumonia and flu killed people and animals of all ages during the winter, adult humans and animals died of new unheard of diseases many years before their expected time for death. To escape these terrible places of death and despair people unceremoniously packed up and left.

Those who could not or would not leave their exhausted homesteads finally observed declines in production, followed by outright crop failure, erosion and dust bowl formation. This scenario occurred over and over on small individual farms of America finally culminating in a total ecological collapse that produced the great dust bowls of Oklahoma, Texas, Nebraska, Iowa and Kansas in the 1930's.

The problem of the soil "playing out" was not a mystery but an accepted part of the process of life and death in dry land farming plains communities. There were numerous ways in which to slow the process including the biblical method of letting the land rest every seventh year, the application of animal manure to replace used up organic matter, green manure (plant debris or ground cover crops grown to specifically protect against wind erosion, hold moisture and add nitrogen to the soil), composting plant and animal wastes to add to the humus of the soil and the application of guano (large quantities of nitrogen rich droppings from shore birds) and lastly the commercial fertilizers. These procedures and applications only slowed or delayed the process of crop failure while initially keeping tonnage and bushel production up.

While nearly all farmers understand the necessity to maintain the optimal level of organic material and humus in their fields to sustain tonnage production, very few realize the slow insidious leaching and depletion of the life giving minerals (mining) from their land - after all we pay them for tons and bushels, not for an analysis of minimal levels of various minerals in each carrot, potato, broccoli, or bushel of wheat or rice! This belief is summed up in a statement by a professor of soils from Iowa State College of Agriculture Henry Cantwell Wallace (George Washington Carver's favorite teacher and editor of the Wallace's Farmer ),

"Nations endure only as long as their topsoil."

The statement should relay the message that

"Nations endure only as long as nutritional minerals are available in their top soils!"


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